Millions of Americans suffer from the effects of autoimmune diseases, a wide range of conditions in which the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells. For most autoimmune disease, a patient’s quality of life is significantly altered and there are few that have a cure. The damage to these healthy cells disrupts many aspects of physical health and well-being and can cause pain, discomfort, immobility, and changes in your appearance.The current treatment option for the majority of autoimmune diseases is pharmaceutical based (steroids are commonly used) and patients often deal with the side effects of medications and treatments in addition to their symptoms. Scottsdale, AZ physician, and Regenerative Medicine Specialist Dr. Todd Malan has been a pioneer in the clinical development and use of experimental stem cell therapies for the treatment of autoimmune disease-related symptoms.


Stem Cell Therapy and Regenerative Medicine can target areas of damage and restore healthy cell regeneration to mitigate symptoms and often reverse tissue damage of autoimmune diseases. Adult Stem Cells also have the ability to reset the immune system and improve cell-to-cell communication helping the body restore to its natural state of balance. Dr. Malan is able to harvest the adult stem cells from the patient’s own fat storage areas in the body.

The cells can reduce inflammation, improve cell-to-cell communication and help to reset the immune system helping to improve the management of autoimmune diseases.

Stem cell treatments can give new hope to patients who have seen their daily life impacted by the effects of disease and the side effects of medications used to treat their symptoms. In many cases, the effects are felt or visible within weeks and they are able to enjoy less pain, greater mobility or a decreased risk of organ failure.


Dr. Todd Malan is an internationally recognized expert in Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Therapies and patients travel from all over the world to seek therapy in his Scottsdale, Arizona practice.

Dr. Malan provides personalized, consultative care for patients who suffer from autoimmune disorders to evaluate their needs, determine underlying factors contributing to an imbalance and offer alternatives to traditional therapies. If you have been diagnosed with an autoimmune disorder and would like to discuss your options for Regenerative Medicine therapies, contact our Phoenix, Arizona office to schedule a consultation. Call 480-998-7999 to discuss your specific medical needs.

NOTE : This article has been taken from as it is. Click here to read original article.

Medical professionals would surely welcome any safe and effective treatment option for people with COVID-19 — and pharmaceutical companies are doing their best to hastily find solutions. Preclinical and clinical trials now under way are testing seemingly every plausible hypothesis, from failed Ebola drug candidates (antivirals) to approved arthritis drugs (anti-inflammatory drugs) to a moisturizer ingredient commonly found in hand lotions and shampoos (a long-shot vaccine adjuvant).Investors shouldn’t be surprised that stem cell developers have thrown their hats into the ring, too. What might be more surprising are the promising results from one of the first studies testing stem cells against COVID-19. Shares of Australian biotech Mesoblast (NASDAQ:MESO) soared as much as 219% on the data, while small-cap peers Pluristem Therapeutics (NASDAQ:PSTI) and Athersys (NASDAQ:ATHX) both saw their stock prices jump by double digits.The broad group of drugs referred to as stem cell therapies have yet to live up to their lofty potential. Could they really be the COVID-19 treatment we’ve all been waiting for?


It’s plausible. The types of stem cells being investigated in clinical trials as potential COVID-19 treatments are thought to play crucial roles in moderating immune responses. Researchers currently believe that many of the severe and critical cases of COVID-19 progress when the patient’s immune system overreacts, causing runaway inflammation, which leads to difficulty breathing, organ failure, and death. Therefore, the idea is that administering certain types of stem cells to hospitalized patients might help to bring immune responses back under control.

While the immunomodulatory characteristics of some stem cells are well known, scientists have struggled to demonstrate their therapeutic potential for most conditions they’ve tried, including heart attack, stroke, and autoimmune diseases. That’s what makes the results from a small study testing stem cells in COVID-19 so intriguing, and perhaps a little surprising to investors who have grown accustomed to disappointing news in the space.


Mesoblast conducted a small study at New York City’s Mt. Sinai Hospital under an emergency compassionate use declaration. COVID-19 patients diagnosed with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and recently placed on a mechanical ventilator were eligible to receive two doses of the company’s allogeneic cell therapy, remestemcel-L.

Of the 12 individuals enrolled in the study, 10 survived (representing a survival rate of 83%), nine have successfully come off ventilator support at a median of 10 days (75%), and seven have been discharged from the hospital (58%). The results are promising considering an observational study of more than 2,600 COVID-19 patients requiring ventilator support in New York City hospitals found that 88% died.

There are some caveats for investors to consider. First, there were only 12 patients in the study and no control arm. Second, all 12 patients received additional experimental therapies while in the hospital. Third, the study wasn’t a clinical trial, though the results will be used to inform the design of a placebo-controlled phase 2/3 study of similar patients.

Nonetheless, the results are promising considering the poor outcomes for COVID-19 patients who require ventilator support. Investors interpreted the success of remestemcel-L as a positive indicator for other stem cell drug candidates being tested in COVID-19-associated ARDS. That’s helped to keep a strong 2020 rally in stem cell stocks humming along through the end of April.

Metric Mesoblast Athersys Pluristem Therapeutics
Market cap (market close April 24) $1.59 billion $520 million $221 million
Year-to-date stock gain (market close April 24) 101% 115% 215%
Type of stem cells Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) Placenta-derived, mesenchymal-like adherent stromal cells
Brand name N/A (chemical name is remestemcel-L) MultiStem PLacental eXpanded, or PLX cells
Intended clinical trial in COVID-19 Treating ARDS in patients on ventilators Treating ARDS in patients on ventilators Treating ARDS in patients on ventilators


Both Athersys and Pluristem Therapeutics are working to initiate clinical trials of their own stem cell products to treat complications related to coronavirus infections, although there are differences to each company’s approach.

There are technical considerations investors could dive into. For instance, Mesoblast and Athersys can generate MSCs and MAPCs, respectively, in easy-to-scale manufacturing processes while ensuring product consistency and avoiding the need to match donors and patients. Pluristem Therapeutics is limited by placenta harvesting and may not be able to use its stem cell products as widely.

But when it comes to stem cell stocks, investors don’t have to wander too far into the weeds to uncover broad concerns.


Could stem cell products become the COVID-19 treatments the world has been waiting for? Again, it’s plausible, but investors should stop and consider some of the higher-level concerns for stem cell stocks.

Mesoblast, Athersys, and Pluristem Therapeutics are all relatively small, which hinders their access to funding and demonstrates their lack of experience developing drug candidates. Stem cell drug candidates from across the field have a long history of delivering disappointing results in large studies, which explains the lack of commercialized products from the trio.

Equally important, well-established pharmaceutical companies have largely avoided stem cell therapies due to gaps in scientific understanding of how they might actually work in a therapeutic setting. MSCs, MAPCs, and placenta-derived stem cells each secrete a range of biomolecules in natural settings to initiate blood vessel growth, repair tissues, and calm the immune system. Does that mean scientists can simply administer stem cells into a patient and hope they’ll work their magic? The complexity of biology — and clinical data collected to date — suggests it won’t be so simple.

Simply put, while the early stage results from Mesoblast’s exploratory study conducted under emergency compassionate use are promising, investors shouldn’t get too carried away until more robust results are in hand.


Smell loss is among the very first signs of COVID-19, and nearly everyone who has COVID-19 has some degree of smell loss. Dr. Richard Doty, Director of the Smell and Taste Center at Penn Medicine Ear, Nose and Throat, outlines all you need to know about the effects of COVID-19 on your ability to smell.

How do viruses affect sense of smell?

The most common cause of smell loss in the general population is viruses, like the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Upper respiratory infections, for example, are a common way in which smell is damaged. This is because the viruses enter those cells associated with smell and damage them.

In some cases, viruses can be neurotropic. This means they enter into nerve cells, and the virus can then spread into the brain through the olfactory receptor cells, causing a number of different diseases.

What research is being done on COVID-19-related smell loss and what do we know so far?

At the University of Pennsylvania, we’ve been doing collaborative research with a number of institutions, including researchers in Tehran, where we’ve done the first study to show that smell loss is in fact present. There have been many self-reports of smell loss occurring, but no one has actually given olfactory tests. In relation to COVID, we know that many people get their sense of smell back.

Studies happening at Penn, along with other institutions, show that within two to four weeks, most people have their sense of smell return, although not quite to the level they had it before. On the other hand, around 25 percent or more of people with smell loss will experience it long-term. We don’t know for sure whether it’s permanent, but it’s quite possible in many cases.

What if I think I’m losing my sense of smell?

If you’re concerned about losing your sense of smell, you can use common household items, like vanilla extract, to test it. If you discover that coffee has no taste or chocolate seems to no longer have any taste other than bitterness or sweetness, then it’s likely that you may be experiencing smell loss.

When you chew food, molecules go up through the rim of the nasal cavity to reach the olfactory receptors at the top of the nose. For that reason, things like coffee and chocolate do not have any “taste”– it’s really a smell. Many people think they are experiencing a loss of taste, but actually, the loss is due to decreased flavor sensation from the sense of smell.

If this loss has happened over a very rapid period of time, there’s a possibility that you have COVID-19. You should contact your primary care doctor, who will conduct further testing.

How is Penn ENT currently operating and what are your plans moving forward?

Penn Medicine is currently seeing patients with a focus on individuals who have the most serious complications. Penn Medicine has been largely practicing telemedicine for the safety of patients, providers and others involved. However, for patients that require in-person care, we are taking full precautions to welcome them into all of our facilities in a safe and proper manner.

Why is our sense of smell so important?

Your sense of smell may be more important than you realize. In addition to determining the flavor of foods and beverages, if you can’t smell, you’re less likely to detect leaking natural gas, spoiled food, and other environmental dangers.

Just like the other senses, it’s important to pay attention to your sense of smell and seek medical help if it declines. During these unprecedented times, if you’re experiencing smell loss or other problems that may require treatment, contact Penn ENT to discuss your symptoms and a possible treatment plan.

NOTE : This article has been taken from as it is. Click here to read original article.

Picture a juicy cheeseburger. A slice of cool, crisp watermelon. Pretty much anything with bacon. Are you drooling yet?

It’s common to jokingly describe a delectable dish as drool-worthy.

But unwanted, excessive drooling — usually while sleeping — is no laughing matter. It can be annoying and embarrassing. “Excess saliva, also known as hypersalivation or sialorrhea, can be a result of excess production or decreased clearance of saliva,” said Dr. Paula Barry, physician at Penn Family and Internal Medicine Longwood. This can lead to drooling which typically is not cause for concern, but at times can be a sign of a larger health problem.

If you’re waking up each morning with a drool spot on your pillow, it may be time to find out what’s going on. Here are four causes that could be behind your excessive drooling.

1. Allergies and Infections

If your body is allergic to something or has an infection, it might produce more saliva to flush the toxins out. In turn, this can make you drool. There are a few different conditions that can cause this reaction:

Seasonal Allergies: Are itchy eyes, a runny nose, and sneezing accompanying your drooling? You might be suffering from seasonal allergies, which can also cause excessive saliva production and lead to drooling . The most common allergens are mold, and pollen — from trees, grass, and weeds.

Sinus Congestion or Respiratory infections: Your sinuses — the hollow air spaces within the bones that surround your nose — can become inflamed because of the common cold, allergies, or other nasal problems. If your sinuses become inflamed or infected, it can cause a blockage and lead to unwanted drainage. This drainage can eventually come out in the form of drooling.

Strep throat (pharyngitis) and tonsillitis: If you’re having trouble swallowing because your throat hurts, you may have pharyngitis, more commonly known as a sore throat. Pharyngitis can be either viral or bacterial and may present with red and white patches in your throat, swollen glands, and a fever. In addition, your tonsils could be enlarged or inflamed. Less swallowing leads to more saliva in the mouth, which can come out during your sleep as drool. “However, you can’t tell you have strep throat by its symptoms alone, so it’s important to speak with your physician for proper diagnosis,” said Dr. Barry.

So, What About Treatment?

If you think allergies or an infection may be behind your Causes of Drooling, start with a visit to your primary care provider. In the majority of cases, medication can treat the underlying cause of drooling. If the condition is persistent, you may need to see a physician who specializes in treating ear, nose, and throat (ENT) conditions.

2. Sleep Apnea

Because drool is your saliva escaping your mouth unintentionally, it’s more likely to happen when you’re not consciously able to control it, like when you’re sleeping. Sleeping on your side or stomach can create an easy escape route from your mouth. Sleeping on your back may help curb drooling. Then, you don’t have to worry about the unwanted drool spot and mouth crust in the morning.

A sleep disorder called sleep apnea can also be associated with drooling because your airway is either narrowed or blocked. Sleep apnea can take two forms: Obstructive sleep apnea is when your airway is repeatedly blocked during sleep, central sleep apnea is when the brain isn’t sending the right signals that you need to breathe. This irregular breathing can lead to excess saliva production and drool.

What Does Treatment Involve?

If you aren’t sure whether sleep apnea is the culprit, start with a visit to your primary care provider. They can determine if you simply need to adjust your sleeping position, or if you will need further evaluation from an Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) or sleep medicine specialist. They may recommend a sleep study to determine if you have sleep apnea. If so, the condition is often managed successfully with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).

3. Side Effect of Medications

Sometimes, certain medications can increase the amount of saliva your body produces, especially if you take medications for:

What Does Treatment Involve?

The type of provider you see depends on the specific medication and why the medication was prescribed. For example, if it was prescribed for depression, you may see a behavioral health specialist who can discuss other possible treatment options. If it was prescribed for Alzheimer’s disease, a neurologist may be the best fit.

If you’re not quite sure, start with your primary care provider or pharmacist.

4. Difficulty Swallowing Caused by Stroke or Neurological Disorders

Some conditions — including certain neurologic disorders or stroke — can lead to what’s called dysphagia. This is when you have pain or difficulty swallowing, and some people cannot swallow at all. As if that’s not bothersome enough, drooling can come next.

Nervous System Disorders: Disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Bell’s Palsy and Parkinson’s Disease are some examples of conditions that can lead to dysphagia.

Stroke: When you have a stroke, blood is not flowing properly to your brain. This is usually the result of either a blood clot or broken blood vessel. Left untreated, Causes of Drooling can cause damage to your nervous system — which can lead to difficulty swallowing as well as drooling.

What Does Treatment Involve?

“Treatment for Causes of Drooling by neurologic disorders can vary based on the cause and degree to which it is impacting your daily life. Some neurologists may refer a patient to a speech-language pathologist. There are also certain medications which can decrease the production of saliva. In addition, Botox injections can be beneficial for some individuals,” Dr. Barry concluded.

NOTE : This article has been taken from as it is. Click here to read original article.

It’s true. Certain foods can actually help to ease arthritis symptoms and improve your overall joint health.

Along with the use of medications, a proper diet can curb the inflammatory responses from the body that cause pain. Eating the right foods also helps you maintain a healthy weight, which is incredibly important since your hips and knees support most, if not all, of your body weight.

To ease your arthritis pain, try these types of food:

Fatty Fish

Salmon, mackerel and tuna have high levels of Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D. Both of these have been found to help reduce inflammation. We recommend a healthy diet that includes fish a couple of times a week. For non-fish eaters, consider fish oil supplements as an alternative.

Dark Leafy Greens

Spinach, kale, broccoli and collard greens are great sources for vitamins E and C. Vitamin E works to protect the body against pro-inflammatory molecules. Vitamin C helps the body make collagen, which is a major component of cartilage that aids in joint flexibility.


Almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pecans, pistachios and walnuts contain high amounts of fiber, calcium, magnesium, zinc, Vitamin E and Omega-3 fats which all have anti-inflammatory effects. Nuts are also heart-healthy, which is particularly important for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since they have twice the risk of heart disease as healthy adults.

Olive Oil

Extra virgin olive oil is loaded with heart-healthy fats, as well as oleocanthal, which has properties similar to non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs. Olive oil, combined with vitamin D, has also been shown to protect against bone loss.


Berries pack a double dose of anti-inflammatory properties. All fruits are best foods for arthritis high in antioxidants, which can help fight inflammation. Additionally, foods like blueberries, raspberries, strawberries and blackberries contain anthocyanins, which reduce inflammation.

Garlic and Onions

Believe it or not, but these pungent vegetables contain anti-inflammatory chemicals that have shown to relieve some forms of arthritic pain. As an added bonus, they are also known for their immunity-boosting properties.

Green Tea

This mild-mannered drink contains a natural antioxidant called epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). This ingredient has been shown as one of the best foods for arthritis to stop the production of certain inflammatory chemicals in the body, including those involved in arthritis. Recent studies also suggest that EGCG may prevent cartilage from breaking down, helping to preserve joints longer.

While it’s important to incorporate as many of the items listed above into your diet, there are foods you should try to avoid. Those high in saturated and trans fats – such as red meat, fried food and packaged baked goods – are unhealthy in general and can lead to weight gain, which can make symptoms worse.



NOTE : This article has been taken from as it is. Click here to read original article.

It is important to communicate all the medicines you are taking to your transplant team including prescription medications, over the counter medications, vitamins and herbal supplements. In Liver Transplant OTC Medications can be affected by other medications or supplements you may be taking. This is called a drug interaction – when one medication affects how another medication works. Drug interactions can be dangerous and lead to organ rejection, infections, side effects, or affect other medical problems that could impact your quality and quantity of life.

The Penn Medicine Liver Transplant Team provides some general rules for its patients regarding over the counter medications, vitamins and herbal supplements.

Here is a table summarizing information about over the counter medications, vitamins, herbal supplements as well as fruits and teas. Use this table as a reference to avoid drug interactions to keep your new liver safe and healthy.



NOTE : This article has been taken from as it is. Click here to read original article.