A Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) is a medical procedure of injecting blood-forming healthy stem cells into the body to replace diseased bone marrow. It is also called a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). BMT is done if there are serious immune deficiencies, bone marrow cancer, bone marrow failure syndromes, thalassemia, other haematological disorders or genetic metabolic disorders.
Manaaki has the best hospitals for bone marrow transplant in India that covers all aspects of a healthy bone marrow treatment. It include Marrow Transplant Care, Surgical, Physician, Radiology, Nursing, Blood Bank, Laboratory and all other medical services under one roof working cohesively.
Following are the some of the common medical conditions in which Bone Marrow Transplantation procedure is required to replace a diseased Bone Marrow.
• Blood Cancers
Leukemia: It is most common type of blood cancer in which the bone marrow produces copious abnormal white blood cells which tend to grow faster and invade other normal blood cells resulting in problems like bleeding, anemia and infections. Leukemia can either be acute or chronic and have 4 main types.
-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
-Acute MyelogenousLeukemia (AML)
-Chronic MyelogenousLeukemia (CML)
-Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
• Lymphoma: It is the type of cancer that begins in the lymph system which is a series of lymph nodes and vessels that carries lymph fluid through the body. This system typically protects the body from infections.
• Multiple myeloma: It is a cancer that occurs in a type of white blood cells called as a plasma cell which is responsible to fight infections by making antibodies against foreign germs. Thus in case of cancer, the cancerous plasma cells produces abnormal proteins rather than producing helpful antibodies which results in complications.
• Inherited Blood Cell Diseases
o Thalassemia: It is an inherited blood disorder passed down through the families in which the body makes an abnormal and inadequate of haemoglobin. This haemoglobin is a protein molecule that is present in red blood cells which carries oxygen throughout the body. However, due to lack of haemoglobin in this disorder, large number of RBCs get destroyed which leads to anaemia.
o Sickle Cell Anaemia: It is an inherited form of anaemia in which there aren’t enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen throughout your body. In this the red blood cells becomes rigid, sticky and shaped like sickle or crescent moon.
• Aplastic Anaemia:
It is a form of bone marrow failure. In this condition, the body stops producing adequate amount of blood cells which ultimately leaves you feeling fatigued and with a higher risk of infections and uncontrolled bleeding.
Types of Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone Marrow Transplant is a very complex procedure and requires comprehensive and accurate planning and carefulness. There are 2 main types of Bone Marrow Transplant.
• Autologous BoneMarrow Transplant:
In this type of BMT, patient’s own body’s healthy blood forming stem cells are collected and processed to replace with the unhealthy and diseased blood cells.
• Allogenic Bone Marrow Transplant:
In this type of BMT, the healthy blood forming cells are taken from a donor person whose tissue has the same genetic type as the patient. This donor can be a family member like your siblings, parents or can be someone unrelated to you.
Depending on the relation of the donor and matching of tissue, Allogenic BMT is further classified into 3 types.
o Complete Matched Sibling Donor BMT: In this, the donor is most likely to be a brother or sister of the patient. These are often a complete match to patient’s tissue
o Haplo-identical BMT: It is a type of Allogenic BMT in which parents are usually a donor to the patient since they are half match for their children. In cases, where a complete match is not found and the patients do not have any sibling, the expert surgeon considers parents to be a donor and perform Haplo-identical BMT.
o Un-related Donor BMT: In cases, where there is no sibling and parents are also not a match for the patient, then Un-related Donor BMT is the solution, in which donor who is unrelated to you is made available for the transplant from the Donor Match Registry.
Bone marrow is the vital semi-solid, fatty tissue which is found inside the spongy or cancellous part of bones of human body. It is the primary site of production of new blood forming cells in the body which is also commonly known as haematopoiesis. The new blood forming cells that the bone marrow produces includes –
• Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) : which carts oxygen and vital nutrients to all parts of the body
• White Blood Cells (Leukocytes) : are the cells of body’s immune system involved in protecting the body against infections and foreign invaders.
• Platelets (Thrombocytes) : are the tiny blood cells that helps in the formation of blood clots so as to stop or slow down bleeding during injury and thereby helping the wounds to heal.
Are you a Candidate?
As a matter of fact, BMT procedure is associated with numerous risks and complications due to its complexity. Thus, Bone Marrow Transplant is recommended
• In patients where other treatment options have failed
• In patients who are at higher risk of his/her disease to return back without transplant
• In cases where the benefits of Bone Marrow Transplant prevail over the risks and complications associated with the surgery
• In patients who are in otherwise good condition and have matched stem cell available from either a sibling or parents and family member.
Being a complex procedure, Bone Marrow Transplant requires comprehensive and accurate planning. The expert surgeon firstly needs to assess the patient comprehensively to be very sure that patient is healthy enough to endure and give positive response to the transplant. Thus, patient needs to undergo battery of investigations and evaluations to assess the important organs such as lungs, kidneys, heart, liver etc. Basis on the results of evaluation, if the patient is well enough then Bone Marrow Transplant procedure is carried out in the following stepwise manner.
Step 1 : Harvesting of Healthy Stemcells :
• With Allogenic BMT, the bone marrow is harvested from the suitable matched donor 1-2 days prior to the transplantation procedure. The donor is given general anesthesia and the stem cells are harvested from the hip bone or iliac crest (since the stem cells are located here in abundance), using a needle.
• In case of Autologous BMT, the blood from the patient’s own body is collected intravenously and a specialized machine is used to separate the white blood cells containing stem cells from the blood. This procedure is known as Leukapheresis.
Step 2 : Conditioning of the patient :
Also, in blood cell cancers, the patient needs to undergo either chemotherapy or radiation therapy before transplantation surgery so as to destroy the cancerous cells and to create space for the new or healthy bone morrow.
Step 3 : Stem cell transplant :
After conditioning, the patient is prepared for the transplant procedure. To begin with, a central venous catheter termed as port is positioned on the upper right side of patient’s chest wall. The harvested stem cells from the donor are then infused in the patient’s body through this port. These new stem cells flows directly to patient’s heart via port from where the new cells are circulated throughout the patient’s body via bloodstream. The cells then establish themselves in the bone marrow steadily to grow.
Step 4 : Engraftment :
The infusion of new stem cells is done in multiple sessions that help these healthy new cells to amalgamate in the patient’s body. In addition to this, the patient also receives blood transfusions, platelet transfusions, antibiotics and fluids through the same port which further helps the patient’s body to fight infections and accept the newly formed bone marrow. This entire process is termed as Engraftment.
Step 5 : Patient’s Monitoring :
Once infusion is done, the patient is closely monitored to check the organ functions and to check for any signs of rejection or complications. In addition, constant monitoring is required to check if engraftment has occurred. Precautions are also required to be taken to avoid any infection. The procedure is considered successful once the newly engrafted bone marrow begins to produce normal blood cells.
Cost of Bone Marrow Transplant
India is one of the most affordable places for Bone Marrow Transplant procedure across the globe. We certainly understand that if you have chosen to travel overseas for your Bone marrow transplant, then you are indeed looking for cost effectiveness. When you speak about the best, Manaaki is the name you can trust on. Modern technology, State of the art hospitals, most coveted BMT surgeons and specialists, excellent infrastructure at par with international standards. With no language barrier, personalized attention, safe surgery and seamless travel, Manaaki attracts the individuals worldwide to get their Bone marrow transplant in India done through us.
Thus, we are committed to offer you the best possible and special negotiated prices for your Bone marrow transplant in India without compromising on the quality of medical services and results.